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Citing Sources & Plagiarism

How to correctly cite research sources and avoid plagiarism.

Citation Styles and Examples

Citation styles, such as APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian, are sets of rules that determine how citations are formatted. Different disciplines favor certain styles, so check with your professor is you are unsure of which format to use for your paper. 

Always cite your sources using the correct citation style. The table below matches citation style with appropriate discipline/subject.


 Used in social sciences such as economics, geography, history,     political science, psychology, social studies and sociology; education and business.


 Used in academic writing for languages and literature.



 Used in the humanities and social sciences, such as literature, history,  political science, and the arts. CMS uses two documentation    systems for referencing sources: (1) NB - note-bibliography style through footnote or endnote citation and (2) author-date style through parenthetical in-text citation and reference list style.

APA Citation Style

APA  is the preferred citation style when writing your research paper for the following disciplines: EDUCATION, PSYCHOLOGY, BUSINESS, and SOCIOLOGY.

Major Citation Style Guides (Print)

Find detailed information and examples of your citation style in the books below. These books can be borrowed from the Library.

Understanding Citations Practice

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Library has created several useful presentations that can help you understand how to read and create citations. These interactive presentations review basic citations, as well as APA and IEEE formats.